November 20,2018

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November 20, 2018

Current Affairs for Engineering Service Exam

Video Lectures and Test Series for ESE 2019

 Topics list:

  1. National and International Issues on
    1. Economic Development
    2. Social Development
    3. Industrial Development
  2. Energy and Environment
    1. Energy
    2. Environment
  3. Information and Communication Technology
    1. Technology
    2. Application
  4. The Key Initiatives of Government
  5. General Knowledge

Topic 1:Social development

Global Fight on Malaria

The World Health Organisation said global efforts to fight malaria have hit a plateau as it reported there were more cases of the killer disease in 2017 than the previous year.

The Report:

  • The number of malaria cases climbed to 219 million last year, two million higher than 2016, while international funding has declined.
  • The international funding to fight the disease has declined in the recent years.
  • The disease killed 4,35,000 people last year, the majority of them children under five in Africa.

About Malaria:

  • Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites.
  • It is transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The mosquito transmits the parasite in to bloodstream and after it gets matured it begin to infect red blood cells.
  • There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species P. falciparum and P. vivax pose the greatest threat.

Read more at: The Hindu

Global education monitoring report 2019

The UNESCO global education monitoring report 2019 has observed, bringing out the educational challenges thrown up by migration.

India’s status:

  • In India, 10.7 million children aged 6 to 14 lived in rural households with a seasonal migrant in 2013. About 28% of youth aged 15 to 19 in these households were illiterate or had not completed primary school, compared to 18% of the cohort overall
  • About 80% of seasonal migrant children in seven cities lacked access to education near work sites, and 40% are likely to end up in work rather than education, experiencing abuse and exploitation.
  • Construction sector workers will have negative impact on education for children who are left behind as their parents migrate.
  • The growth of slums and informal settlements  where schools are often scarce due to migration as a challenge.
  • There is only one urban planner for every 1,00,000 people in India, while there are 38 for every 1, 00,000 in the United Kingdom.

Addressing the issue:

  • The Right to Education Act in 2009 made it mandatory for local authorities to admit migrant children.
  • Some State governments have also taken steps for migrant children’s education.

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 1:Industrial development

Ease of Doing Business Grand Challenge

The Prime Minister of India launched a Grand Challenge on resolving seven identified Ease of Doing Business problems with the use of cutting edge technologies.

Highlights:

  • The objective of this Challenge is to tap the potential of young Indians, startups and other private enterprises to provide solutions to complex problems using current technology.
  • To make India one of the easiest places to conduct business in the world
  • In the World Bank’s Doing Business Report (DBR, 2019) released on 31st October 2018 India has recorded a jump of 23 positions against its rank of 100 in 2017 to be placed at 77th rank among 190 countries assessed by the World Bank.

Read more at: PIB

Topic 2 : Environment

Invasive alien plants found

The Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) reveals that more plants have started to show its invasive nature in the forest areas of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, including Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS), a major habitat of Asiatic elephants and tigers in the country.

Key facts:

  • The invasive species are  Lemon basil or Tea bush (Ocimum gratissimum); Red-flower rag leaf (Crassocephalum crepidioides) and Blue snake weed or cayenne snakeweed (Stachytarpheta cayennensis).
  • They pose serious threats to native species

About Invasive species:

An invasive species can be any kind of living organism—an amphibian (like the cane toad), plant, insect, fish, fungus, bacteria, or even an organism’s seeds or eggs—that is not native to an ecosystem and causes harm. They can harm the environment, the economy, or even human health.

Characteristics of Invasive species:

  • Invasive species generally have a high sexual reproductive capacity, ability to reproduce asexually, rapid growth from seed to sexual maturity.
  • A great dispersal and colonization efficiency
  • A high tolerance to environmental heterogeneity and disturbances
  • A high adaptation to environmental stress (phenotypic plasticity) and
  • A greater competitive capacity than native species

Harmful effects of Invasive species:

  • The potential to disrupt vital ecosystem functions
  • Cause massive amounts of economic damage to the agricultural business by destroying crops and contaminating produce.
  • Displace or kill native species or can reduce wildlife food and habitat.
  • The high populations can out-compete with native species

Control measures:

  • Uprooting the plants before flowering and seed setting.
  • To prevent its’ introduction and establishment
  • Avoiding the long range movement of Invasive species
  • To educate many stakeholders
  • Report any occurrence of invasive species to local county extension agent, state forestry agency, or to other federal or state natural resource or agricultural agencies

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 3 : ICT

AirSewa 2.0

The Union Ministry of Civil Aviation launched the upgraded version of AirSewa 2.0 web portal and mobile app in New Delhi.

Key Facts:

  • To provide a superior user experience with enhanced functionalities.
  • Major improvements include features such as secure sign-up and log-in with social media, chatbot for travellers support,improved grievance management including social media grievances, real-time flight status and details flight schedule.
  • An interactive web portal as well as through a mobile app for both android and iOS platforms and will offer passengers a convenient and hassle-free air travel experience.
  • The web portal and application will help to capture air travellers’ feedback for policy interventions.
  • It  would include DigiYatra registration, airport maps, BHIM payment integration and grievance escalation and transfer.

Read more at: PIB

Artificial intelligence in Healthcare

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems poses an opportunity for medical professionals to learn more than before, the enormous amount of medical information can overwhelm the decision-making processes.

Highlights:

  • AI in healthcare can help to leverage technology to deploy efficient, impactful interventions at exactly the right moment in a patient’s care.
  • Artificial intelligence can provide insights into diagnostics, care processes, treatment variability, and patient outcomes.
  • AI systems can bring in better standardisation of processes, and therefore subjectivity in interpreting information will be reduced.
  • AI-assisted robotic surgery, where robots are able to analyse pre-op medical data and guide a surgeon’s instrument during surgery, ensures patients develop fewer complications than otherwise.
  • AI is that it can significantly improve efficiency, while reducing wastage and costs.
  • Low doctor-patient ratio.
  • To deliver remote medicine and create virtual access in an effective manner.
  • Doctors with AI can treat and monitor patients across geographies .
  • Healthcare organisations can plan policies, guidelines, strategies and infrastructure to address health needs in a precise manner, thereby optimising the resources and delivery.
  • The State can prioritise plans, budgetary allotments with greater understanding and in optimal utilisation.
  • The auto diagnosis tool is an AI-powered tool that runs on actual diagnostic tests results and provides probable risks factors.
  • It also suggests users change their lifestyle by recommending diet and exercise plans.
  • Further investigations (if any) and a list of repetitive examinations for regular health tracking and monitoring are also suggested.

Read more at: The Hindu

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