Current Affairs for Engineering Service Exam
Video lectures for ESE prelims 2020
- National and International Issues on
- Economic Development
- Social Development
- Industrial Development
- Energy and Environment
- Information and Communication Technology
- General Knowledge
Topic 1:Social development
Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) 2018
The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI).
- India reduced its poverty rate sharply from 55 per cent to 28 per cent in ten years between 2005-06 and 2015-16. In India, a total of 271 million (27.10 crore) people moved out of poverty during these ten years.
- In India, poverty reduction among children, the poorest states, Scheduled Tribes, and Muslims was fastest.
- Although Muslims and STs reduced poverty the most over the 10 years, these two groups still had the highest rates of poverty.
- Bihar was the poorest state in 2015-16, with more than half its population in poverty.
- The four poorest states —Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh — were still home to 196 million MPI poor people, which was over half of all the MPI poor people in India.
- Jharkhand had the greatest improvement, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Nagaland.
Definition of MPI poor:
- The report measures multidimensional poverty index, which it says can be broken down to show “who is poor” and “how they are poor”. This factors in two measures, poverty rate as a percentage of the population, and intensity as the average share of deprivations that poor people experience. The product of these two is MPI. If someone is deprived in a third or more of 10 weighted indicators, the global index identifies them as “MPI poor”.
- Context: The report, covering 105 countries, dedicates a chapter to India because of this remarkable progress. However, India still had 364 million poor in 2015-16, the largest for any country, although it is down from 635 million in 2005-06.
Read more at: IndianExpress
Topic 2 : Environment
IEA CO2 Status Report
International Energy Agency (IEA) has released Global Energy & CO2 Status Report.
- India emitted 2,299 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2018, a 8% rise from last year
- India’s emissions growth this year was higher than that of the United States and China the two biggest emitters in the world and this was primarily due to a rise in coal consumption.
- India’s per capita emissions were about 40% of the global average and contributed 7% to the global carbon dioxide burden.
- China, the United States, and India together accounted for nearly 70% of the rise in energy demand.
- The United States, the largest emitter, was responsible for 14%.
- Global energy consumption in 2018 increased at nearly twice the average rate of growth since 2010, driven by a robust global economy and higher heating and cooling needs in some parts of the world.
- Demand for all fuels increased, led by natural gas, even as solar and wind posted double digit growth.
- Higher electricity demand was responsible for over half of the growth in energy needs.
- Energy efficiency saw lacklustre improvement. As a result of higher energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions rose 1.7% last year and hit a new record, the authors of the report said in a press statement.
- The United States had the largest increase in oil and gas demand worldwide. Gas consumption jumped 10% from the previous year, the fastest increase since the beginning of IEA records in 1971.
- Established in 1974 as per framework of the OECD.
- MISSION – The IEA works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 30 member countries and beyond. Our mission is guided by four main areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and engagement worldwide.
- It is headquartered in Paris, France.
- Its mandate: To focus on the “3Es” of effectual energy policy:
- Energy security.
- Economic development.
- Environmental protection.
Read more at: The Hindu
New island rules: IPZ 2019
The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has notified Island Protection Zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar.
- It allows eco-tourism projects 20 meters from the high tide line (HTL) in smaller islands like Baratang, Havelock, and Car Nicobar.
- In case of larger islands, 50 meters from the HTL is permitted.
- It allows for eco-tourism activities like mangrove walks, tree huts and nature trails in island coastal regulation zone(ICRZ) IA (ICRZ 2018: ICRZ IA, provides areas classified as the most eco-sensitive region of the islands which includes turtle nesting grounds, marshes, coral reefs etc)
- The notification also allows for construction of roads, roads on stilts by reclaiming land in exceptional cases for defense installations, public utilities or strategic purposes in eco-sensitive zones.
- In case construction of such roads pass through mangroves, a minimum three times the mangrove area destroyed during the construction process shall be taken up for compensatory plantation of mangroves elsewhere.
- Changes in the IPZ are aligned with the Niti Aayog’s proposal for holistic development in the Islands.
- The government’s planning to open up the blue economy and sustainable harnessing of ocean resources.
Read more at: Hindustantimes
Topic 4: General Knowledge
Mission Shakti – ASAT
Indian scientists from Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) have successfully carried out the test of an anti-satellite (A-SAT) missile by bringing down one of its satellites in the low earth orbit 300 kilometers from the Earth’s surface.
- Mission Shakti was undertaken to develop highly-potent Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT).
- A DRDO-developed Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Interceptor Missile successfully engaged an Indian orbiting target satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in a ‘Hit to Kill’ mode.
- The interceptor missile was a three-stage missile with two solid rocket boosters.
- India has joined three other nations – US, Russia and China – to conduct such an operation.
- It will give a major boost to tackle security challenges that India is facing, especially given the recent bout of escalations with Pakistan.
- Anti-satellite tests are extremely controversial and considered to be contributing towards weaponization of the space, which is prohibited by the Outer Space Treaty of 1967.
What is Mission Shakti, ASAT missile?
- DRDO launched the ASAT weapon from its testing range in Odisha’s Balasore. It targeted an satellite which was positioned on a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at a height of 300 km from earth’s surface.
- ASAT missile can be air, sea or land-based. Starting from 1957 to 1980s, the US and Russia have launched anti-satellite missile test which were termed as violation of 1967 UN treaty.
Read more at: FinancialExpress