July 1,2018

Quiz – June 28, 2018
June 29, 2018
Quiz – June29 ,2018
July 1, 2018

Current Affairs for Engineering Service Exam

 Topics list:

  1. National and International Issues on
    1. Economic Development
    2. Social Development
    3. Industrial Development
  2. Energy and Environment
    1. Energy
    2. Environment
  3. Information and Communication Technology
    1. Technology
    2. Application
  4. The Key Initiatives of Government
  5. General Knowledge

Topic 2 : Environment

Recharge wells: solution to flooding and water scarcity

Recharge wells are small well-like structures on the roadside or part of pavements that have perforated lids to allow water percolation.

Highlights:

  • The existing SWD (stormwater drain) network drain the floodwater into the sea .
  • Instead the civic bodies can construct recharge wells and a smaller network to drain excess water if needed.
  • It would also prevent illegal sewage release and avoid damage of utility lines.

Read more at: The Hindu

Muhammodayam- wetland conservation model

The Muhamma grama panchayat in Kerala  has launched a unique programme to make it a model wetland panchayat.

Highlights:

  • Is aimed at the conservation of the Vembanad Lake ecosystem by developing sustainable livelihoods and management of natural resources.
  • The local body is implementing the project in association with a non-profit organisation.
  • The objective of the project was to make the panchayat a more carbon neutral and eco-friendly place
  • Will give special attention to the climate change aspect.

Read more at: The Hindu

Decreasing ‘greenness’ in India’s forests

Hyderabad’s National Remote Sensing Centre analysed NASA’s MODIS satellite images of India’s forests at eight-day intervals for 15 years (2001 to 2014) and assessed the persistent decreases in greenness.

Highlights:

  • The highest degradation is in moist deciduous forests (more than 20 lakh hectares), especially in the states of Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Wet evergreen forests – including those in the Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayas – are also affected, with the major changes observed in Karnataka and Arunachal Pradesh, followed by Kerala and Meghalaya.
  • More than 15% of India’s total mangrove forests also showed a decrease in greenness.
  • Nearly 80% of these changes occurred in ‘core’ forests like protected areas.

Hotspots:

  • The team determined the spots or areas where the decrease in seasonal greenness were high and spatially contiguous.
  • West Bengal was a major hotspot of mangrove degradation.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Meghalaya were hotspots of decreasing greenness of wet evergreen forests
  • Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh showed degraded montane (high-elevation) wet forests.

Classification of Forest:

  1. Tropical forest:

A great majority of the forests found in India are of this type. Tropical forests are of two types:

  1. Tropical moist forests.
  2. Tropical dry forests.
  1. Subtropical montane forests:

These forests are found in the region of fairly high rainfall but where temperature differences between winter and summer are less marked.

  1. Temperate Montane forests:

These forests occur in the Himalayas at the altitude from 1800 to 3800 metres where humidity and temperature are comparatively low.

  1. Sub-alpine Forests

The sub-alpine forests are found throughout Himalayas from Ladakh in the west to Arunachal in the east at the altitude from 2800 m to 3800 m.

  1. Alpine forests:

Plants growing at the altitude from 2900 to 6000 m are called alpine plants.

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 3 : ICT

e-Beat System

The Salem City Police of Tamil Nadu  have launched a unique e-Beat System to ensure effective patrolling of the entire city.

Key facts:

  • The patta books are substituted by the QR tags that can be fixed at the place of check and visit by the beat officers.
  • Each beat officer and patrol officer is provided with a smart phone with 4G connectivity in which the application is loaded.
  • The beat officers have to scan the QR tag from the application through mobile camera as soon as they reach that particular point.
  • The software automatically records the time at which QR tag is scanned.
  • All these data are stored in the server and can be retrieved and analysed whenever required.

Advantages:

  • The time of visit of the beat officers is recorded electronically and cannot be manipulated.
  • As the system also gives details of points not checked by the particular beat officer, it will be very useful to identify non-performing beat officers
  • Increase the effectiveness of the system.
  • The movements of the beat officers can be monitored on digital map as the mobile instruments provided to the beat officers have GPS system.
  • The recorded date and time of visit can be analysed and report can be generated to study the effectiveness of the police beat movement.

Read more at: The Hindu

Blockchain technology for subsidy payments

  • NITI Aayog and Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) signed a statement of intent (SOI) to work together towards using Blockchain technology for fertiliser subsidy management.
  • Will work on implementing a proof-of-concept (PoC) application for using the technology in subsidy disbursements

A proof of concept (POC)

  • It is a demonstration, the purpose of which is to verify that certain concepts or theories have the potential for real-world application.
  • POC is therefore a prototype that is designed to determine feasibility.
  • Proof of concept is also known as proof of principle.

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 4: The Key Initiatives of Government

Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)

  • The UIP basket has vaccines for ten diseases i.e BCG for TB, OPV for poliomyelitis, monovalent measles vaccine for measles, Rota Virus vaccine for Diarrhoea, JEV for Japanese Encephalitis & Pentavalent Vaccine for DPT (diphtheria, pertussisi.e whooping cough & tetanus) and Hepatitis B & Pneumonia due to Hib.
  • Measles-rubella vaccine (MR) is added now to the UIP.
  • India has set a target of eliminating measles and controlling congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), caused by the rubella virus, by 2020.

Margdarshan

  • Margadarshan scheme is under the purview of All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), a national level apex advisory body under Ministry of Human Resource and Development.  
  • The scheme aims to provide mentoring to institutes by a well performing Institute
  • Institutions of repute will act as a mentor with its existing facilities to serve as the hub to guide and disperse knowledge to 10 technical institutions.  
  • It will allow for information sharing, such as technical education, research and sharing of resources to encourage best practices.  
  • Mentor institute also provide services to faculty for self improvement
  • Government owned, aided and self financed institutes and universities approved by AICTE can participate

Topic 5: General Knowledge

Mumbai’s Victorian and Art Deco buildings get World Heritage tag

Highlights:

  • It will be India’s 37th World Heritage site, and Maharashtra, its fifth.
  • Mumbai’s Victorian buildings are amongst the finest and most well integrated 19th century Victorian architecture in the world.
  • The city’s Art Deco buildings of the 20th century make up the second largest collection of same kind in the world.
  • The tag would enhance Mumbai’s tourism and culture

About World heritage site:

  • A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance.
  • Legally protected by international treaties.
  • To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance

Read more at: The Hindu

Nanotechnology in pesticide delivery
The pesticide harpin has inability to spread into plants. This was overcome by encapsulating harpin in chitosan nanoparticles

Chitosan nanoparticles

  • It is either partially or fully deacetylated chitin.
  • chitin occurs naturally
  • chitosan is a fully biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer
  • It can be used as an adhesive and as an antibacterial and antifungal agent.

Bioavailability

Is the proportion of a drug or other substance which enters the circulation when introduced into the body and so is able to have an active effect.

Read more at: The Hindu

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