Current Affairs for Engineering Service Exam
- National and International Issues on
- Economic Development
- Social Development
- Industrial Development
- Energy and Environment
- Information and Communication Technology
- General Knowledge
Topic 1:Economic development
Difference between a full Budget and an interim Budget
At the end of its term, a government usually presents a vote on account rather than a full Budget.
- A vote on account or interim Budget, means that the government seeks the approval of Parliament for meeting expenditure for the first four months of the fiscal year (April-March) with no changes in the taxation structure.
- The estimates are presented for the entire year, as is the case with the regular Budget.
When is an interim budget presented?
- The government of the day presents an interim budget if it does not have the time to present a full Budget or because national elections may be near.
- In the latter situation, propriety demands that the task of framing the full Budget be left to the incoming government.
What is difference between full budget and interim budget?
- A full budget is the presentation of annual finances of the government, change in existing tax slabs, announcement of new schemes and sops for different sectors of the economy.
- However, in case of an interim budget, change in tax slabs are not made and no new schemes are announced; only finance estimates are presented. In case of an election year, the incoming government has full freedom to change the estimates completely when the final Budget is presented.
Read more at: IndianExpress
Topic 1:Social development
National Agricultural Higher Education Project
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) launches National Agricultural Higher Education Project (NAHEP) to attract talent and strengthen higher agricultural education in the country.
- The project aims to attract talent and strengthen higher agricultural education in the country.
- The project will be funded by the World Bank and the Indian Government on a 50:50 basis.
- A four year degree in Agriculture, Horticulture, Fisheries and Forestry has been declared a professional degree.
- It is an autonomous body responsible for coordinating agricultural education and research in India.
- It reports to the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture.
Read more at:PIB
Non-communicable diseases report by WHO.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) — mainly cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes and cancer — continue to be the top killers in the South-East Asia Region, claiming 8.5 million lives each year, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO).
Health goals by WHO:
- Containing the NCDs
- Reducing mortality related to air pollution
- Climate change
- Global influenza pandemic etc
Highlights of the report:
- One third of the deaths are premature and occur before the age of 70, affecting economically productive individuals.
- The four ‘major’ NCDs are caused, to a large extent, by four modifiable behavioural risk factors:
- Tobacco use
- Unhealthy diet
- Insufficient physical activity
- Harmful use of alcohol.
- The NCDs disproportionately affect the poor, impoverish families, and place a growing burden on health care systems.
- Consuming fibre
- Whole grains
- Sufficient physical activity
Read more at: The Hindu
Topic 2 : Environment
The limits of management capacity for tiger habitation
The conservation efforts are aimed at increasing the tiger count in India, global experts and officials in the government suggest that India must also prepare for a new challenge of reaching the limits of its management capacity.
- India had 2,226 tigers as of 2014.
- An ongoing census is expected to reach more numbers.
- 25-35% of India’s tigers now lived outside protected reserves.
- India’s current capacity to host tigers ranged from 2,500-3,000 tigers.
Reasons for limited management capacity:
- Dwindling core forest
- Shrinking of tiger corridors
- Man-animal conflict
- Develop tiger corridors
- Curbing poaching
- Minimise an-animal conflict
- Increase core forest
Read more at: The Hindu
Topic 3 : ICT
Digital assets offer multiple positives over existing financial systems, and evidence of a tighter integration between the two is beginning to be seen. There are three ways digital assets are redefining the state of the global financial and economical systems.
1. CENTRAL BANK DIGITAL CURRENCIES (CBDC)
- CBDC is similar to the fiat issued by governments today
- The difference is that a CBDC is a digital instrument, which is approved for use as a means of payment, a unit of account and a store of value by the government.
- It is also considered a legal tender, which means it can be used to buy and sell anything that fiat money can.
- It can potentially provide a highly technologically efficient way to control the flow of money in a country.
- It will boost confidence in privately controlled money systems
2. OPTIMIZED INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS
- Along with the potential to change how the government issues money to the population, digital assets can also change the way that Governments interchange value with each other.
- The cross-border payments take anywhere between 3 days to a week, with settlement occurring after a considerable period of time.
3. TOKENIZING REAL-WORLD ASSETS
- By utilizing the blockchain, one can tokenize what is effectively real, such as a house, gold, or even stocks.
- Anything that can imply the transfer of ownership through a contract is fair game
- The blockchains are able to utilise something known as smart contracts for the secure storage and management of tokenized assets.
- Tokenization will also allow for the fractional ownership of a single unit of real estate, thus increasing liquidity and efficiency while targeting pain points for those dealing in alternative assets.
Read more at: Curiousdose