ICT- Applications and Government Schemes

Project Management: Chapter1: Basic concepts
August 20, 2017
Material Science: Chemical Bonding
August 23, 2017
  1. ICT Applications and Government Schemes
  2. Networking Applications
    1. Computer Networking
    2. Business networking
    3. Social Networking
    4. Use of Social Media by Government
  3. E Governance
    1. Advantages
    2. Models
  4. Technology in Education
    1. Content Generation
    2. Alternate teaching approaches
    3. Knowledge Revolution
    4. Supportive Services
  5. Government Schemes
    1. Digital India
      1. Digital Infrastructure
      2. Governance & Services
      3. Digital Empowerment
    2. The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)
    3. e-Kranti / NeGP 2.0
    4. E- Education

1.ICT Applications and Government Schemes

Information and communication technologies are unprecedentedly changing the ways in

  • which people connect and network with each other
  • the mode and philosophy of government-citizen relations and 
  • methods of knowledge and information sharing

Given the multitude of applications and methods, it is better to analyse the applications of ICT through various programmes incentivised or supported by the government. These initiatives cover the wide range of ICT in applications in networking, e-governance and education.

As India pushes hard towards a digital society, the government schemes aims to cover a wide range of applications. All programmes are now co ordinated under the umbrella scheme – The Digital India. It aims to transform the entire ecosystem of public services through the use of information technology. It has the vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. The nine pillars of growth areas, under this scheme are

  1. Broadband Highways
  2. Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity
  3. Public Internet Access Programme
  4. e-Governance: Reforming Government through Technology
  5. e-Kranti – Electronic Delivery of Services
  6. Information for All
  7. Electronics Manufacturing
  8. IT for Jobs and
  9. Early Harvest Programmes

Thus the spectrum of Digital India programme covers the networking and governance aspect, including the underlying infrastructure. The applications developed through these programmes find their use in different fields such as education, health, sanitation, rural and urban development, inclusive development, industrial development etc. All these will contribute towards better governance.

2. Networking Applications

In information technology, networking is the construction, design, and use of a computer network, including the physical network, the selection and use of telecommunication protocol and computer software and the establishment of operation policies and procedures related to the network.

2.1 Computer Networking

A network is a collection or set of computing devices connected to one another, to establish communication and also share available resources. Computer networks make it possible for people to transfer files from one place to another and to communicate taking the shortest time possible.

  • Connecting computers in the same building or office so users can readily communicate with other computers or devices.
  • Computers, for instance, can connect to printers, fax machines, scanners and servers 
  • This networking helps in sharing of the resources and thus helps in cost reduction

2.2 Business networking

  • To form professional relationships
  • Example – Linkedin
    • LinkedIn provides an online meeting place for business professionals to engage with other professionals, join groups, post blogs and create online profiles with the goal of catching the attention of others with similar interests.
    • LinkedIn allows users to search for companies, departments and employees of various firms.
    • People within a LinkedIn network can put potential employees in touch with human resources managers or recruiters. 
  • Email 
    • is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication
    • E-mail was one of the first uses of the Internet and is still the most popular use.
    • E-mail is one of the protocols included with the Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) 
  • Video Conferencing
    • Video conferencing may also involve sharing documents, various presentation materials, whiteboards, flip charts and similar group presentation visual aids
    • Is most often used at the corporate or enterprise level 

2.3 Social Networking

Social Networking is an online service that enables its users to create virtual networks with likeminded people. They are a version of social media. Social media is any web or mobile based platform that enables an individual or agency to communicate interactively and enables exchange of user generated content.Currently, social networking sites are the most prominent version of social media.

  • It often offers the facilities such as chat, instant messaging, photo sharing, updates, etc.
  • FaceBook with 800 million users is one of the most well known social networking site.
  • Blogs are descriptive content pages created and maintained by individual users. The main interactive feature of Blogs is the ability of readers to leave comments and the comment trail can be followed.
  • MicroBlogs are similar to Blogs with a typical restriction of 140 characters or less, which allows users to write and share content. Twitter is the most well known microblogging site.
  • VideoBlogs or Vlogs are blogging sites that mainly use video as the main form of content supported by text. YouTube is the largest video sharing site
  • A Wiki is a collaborative website that allows multiple users to create and update pages on particular or interlinked subjects.Wikipedia is the pioneering site of this type of platform.
  • Other platforms include the Social bookmarking site – stumble upon; transaction based platforms – Amazon, Flipkart, eBay etc; self publishing media – You Tube; SlideShare – Similar to YouTube, here only presentations in PDF, PPT, KeyNote or Open Office format can be uploaded; photo sharing sites -Picasa, Flickr etc

2.4 Use of Social Media by Government

Government organisations are exploring the use of social media for public engagements. They can be effectively used for

  • Seeking feedback from citizens
  • Re-pronouncement of Public Policy
  • Issue based as well as Generic interaction
  • Brand Building or Public Relations
  • Generating Awareness and education on National Action Plans and implementation strategies

The advantages of social media are

  • Connections
    • gives extended outreach
    • provides real time engagement
    • enables individual interaction
    • helps in managing public perceptions about the government/policies
  • Collaboration
    • Public participation is easy through contribution from hundreds of thousands of people.
    • GovLoop is an example of closed collaboration wherein experts groups contribute on specific policy matters.
  • Community participation
    • Social media have several communities which can create awareness about various issues
    • They used for seeking inputs into policy making, building goodwill or even seeking feedback into delivery of public services.

Examples of social media usuage

  • Prime Minister’s Office uses Twitter , FaceBook and YouTube as its platforms for engagement
  • The Delhi Traffic Police has joined Facebook and Twitter to ease handling of traffic related issues
  • The Indore Police Department has been using a blog, Twitter, online and mobile complaint forms, a Google map of police stations and a digital crime mapper to track criminal activities in the region.
  • The Maharashtra Police Department launched an SMS based complaint tracking system (CTS), called “Turant Chovis”, which promised to quickly redress citizen complaints
  • Ministry of External Affairs’  Twitter with the user id “Indian diplomacy” is a very successful venture

3. E Governance

The ICT helps to simplify tasks, make the government processes more efficient and the delivery of government services more effective. It also can improve citizen participation in governance.

e-Governance in India has steadily evolved from computerization of Government Departments to initiatives that that promotes citizen centricity, service orientation and transparency.

The concepts in e-governance include,

  • Management Information System (MIS) – refers to the processing of information through computers and other intelligent devices to manage and support managerial decisions within an organization
  • Decision Support System (DSS) –  for development , planning and responsive administration in governments which led to the genesis of present day “e-Government” concept
  • Bridging the Digital Divide
  • Social and Financial Inclusion through ICT
  • Reaching- the-Unreached

3.1 Advantages

The technology helps in

  • Form simplification and field reduction – Forms can be made simple and user friendly. Helps collection of only relevant data
  • Online applications and tracking – Online applications and tracking of their status, which can be done by citizens at their convience
  • Online repositories – Use of online repositories e.g. for certificates, educational degrees, identity documents, etc. so that citizens are not required to submit these documents in physical form.
  • Integration of services and platforms – Integration of services and platforms across the different departments e.g. Aadhaar platform of Unique Identity Authority of India (UIDAI), payment gateway, Mobile Seva platform, sharing of data through open Application Programming Interfaces (API) and middleware such as National and State Service Delivery Gateways (NSDG/SSDG)
  • Automation of certain jobs – The workflow inside government departments and agencies can be automated to enable efficient government processes and also to allow visibility of these processes to citizens. IT should be used to automate, respond and analyze data to identify and resolve persistent problems
  • Paricipatory governance – provides platform for citizens to give feedbacks, raise complaints, give inputs, access data and monitor the government processes

3.2 Models

The four basic models are available – government-to-citizen (customer), government-to-employees, government-to-government and government-to-business


The goal of government-to-customer (G2C) e-governance is to offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner, and to strengthen the relationship between government and citizens using technology

Ex- ‘MeeSeva’ of Andrapradesh government – “MeeSeva” in Telugu means, ‘At your service’, i.e. service to citizens and facilitates single entry portal for entire range of G2C& G2B services


Help employees maintain communication with the government and vice versa. e-payroll, e-training, online PPF etc are some examples

Ex:- The pensions Mission Mode Project – aimed at making the pension or retirement related information, services and grievances handling mechanism accessible online


Aimed at efficient file routing, quick search and retrieval of files and office orders, digital signatures for authentication, forms and reporting components etc.


  • e-office project of central government
  • Computerization of the PDS covering key functional areas such as supply chain management including allocation and utilization reporting, storage and movement of food grains, grievance redressal and transparency portal, digitization of beneficiary database, Fair Price Shop automation, etc.


Refers to the conduction through the Internet between government agencies and business companies. The Main Goal of Government to Business is

  • Lowering cost of doing business
    • electronic transaction save time 
  • Cutting red tape
    • rules and regulation placed upon business normally take time and are most likely to cause a delay
    • G2B will allow a much faster process with less delays and decreasing the number of rules and regulations
  • Transparency
    • More information will be available
    • makes business transactions transparent
    • Better interaction between business’ stake holders and governments
  • MCA 21 – By the Ministry of Corporate Affairs
  • e-Government Procurement (e-GP) Mission Mode Projects – to create a national initiative to implement procurement reforms, through the use of electronic Government procurement, so as to make public procurement in all sectors more transparent and efficient

4. Technology in Education

One of the most visible effect of ICT advancements is the knowledge revolution. The knowledge once that was accessible only to the elite class, who could get admissions to the premier institutions, is now democratised. The quality and reach of knowledge sources are improving day by day.

We at IESGS also believes in democratisation of knowledge, using the platforms, provided by ICT

The application of technology in education can be as follows,

4.1 Content Generation


  • has helped in making lessons easy for educators
  • more data at fingertips
  • easy search and sorting of contents
  • There are already a variety of apps which offer a lot of variations and possibilities

Use of visual media

  • learning is effective when combined with visual and audible media
  • animators can produce curiosity-igniting videos

Augmented reality (AR)

  • provides students and teachers the opportunity to create layers of digital information, that includes both virtual world and real world elements, to interact with in real time.

4.2 Alternate teaching approaches

Flipped classroom 

  • This is an instructional strategy in which computer-assisted teaching is integrated with classroom instruction.
  • Students are given basic essential instruction, such as lectures, before class instead of during class.
  • This frees up classroom time for teachers to more actively engage with learners

Computer-supported collaborative learning – E-learning 2.0

  • is “learning as a network phenomenon”
  • The idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration, enhanced by technologies driving Web 
  • is a form of informal learning

Linear learning 

  • refers to self-paced learning activities delivered on a computer or handheld device such as a tablet or smartphone
  • Ex- the apps offered by educational ventures like Byju’s Learning App

4.3 Knowledge Revolution

The knowledge revolution comes with accessibility and availability of the teaching resources. 

  • Streaming audio over the internet with webcasts and podcasts and sharing platforms like youtube
  • OpenCourseWare (OCW) gives free public access to information used in undergraduate and graduate programs of distinguished institutes
  • Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have significantly expanded the reach of formal education
  • Group webpages, blogs etc allow learners and educators to post thoughts, ideas, and comments on a website in an interactive learning environment
  • Webcams and webcasting have enabled creation of virtual classrooms and virtual learning environment
  • Screencasting allows users to share their screens directly from their browser and make the video available online so that other viewers can stream the video directly

4.4 Supportive Services

Like in any other field, ICT helps in better governance of education systems. The examples are,

  • Management -tools for student and curriculum management
  • Student – teacher interactions through customised apps, sms, social networking platforms
  • Biometric attendance system for teachers
  • GIS based school location mapping for better allocation of resources
  • Bigdata analytics to know student learning problems and preventing dropouts
  • Use of computers and visual media for improved learning experience
  • Portals to know about the institutions and transparency in admission and management

5. Government Schemes

Many States/UTs have started various e-Governance projects. Though these e-Governance projects were citizen-centric, they could make lesser than the desired impact. Government of India launched National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) in 2006. 31 Mission Mode Projects covering various domains were initiated. Despite the successful implementation of many e-Governance projects across the country, e-Governance as a whole has not been able to make the desired impact and fulfil all its objectives.

It has been felt that a lot more thrust is required to ensure e-Governance in the country promote inclusive growth that covers electronic services, products, devices and job opportunities. Moreover, electronic manufacturing in the country needs to be strengthened.

In order to transform the entire ecosystem of public services through the use of information technology, the Government of India has launched the Digital India programme with the vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. ICTs can positively contribute to the growth of the economy, employment and productivity.

Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation (PRAGATI) platform

  • Is a multi-purpose and multi-modal platform 
  • The platform is aimed at addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.
  • The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies: Digital data management, video-conferencing and geo-spatial technology
  • It is a three-tier system (PMO, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries of the States)
  • Prime Minister will hold a monthly programme where he will interact with the Government of India Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries through Video-conferencing enabled by data and geo-informatics visuals
  • The system has been designed in-house by the PMO team with the help of National Informatics Center (NIC).
  • It is also a robust system for bringing e-transparency and e-accountability with real-time presence and exchange among the key stakeholders

National Informatics Centre (NIC)

Has emerged as a “prime builder” of e-Government / e-Governance applications up to the grassroots level. The activities are

  • Setting up of ICT Infrastructure
  • Implementation of National and State Level e-Governance Projects
  • Products and Services
  • Consultancy to the government departments
  • Research and Development
  • Capacity Building

Has taken up various initiatives like Government eProcurement System(GePNIC), Office Management Software (eOffice), Hospital Management System (eHospital), Government Financial Accounting Information System (eLekha), etc.

NIC is supporting a majority of the mission mode e-Governance projects

5.1 Digital India

The Digital India programme is centred on three key vision areas

5.1.1 Digital Infrastructure

A. Aims to digitally connect the remotest of the Indian villagers are through broadband and high speed internet

  • The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) project
    • Connection through Optical fibre, and last-mile connectivity options offered by wireless technologies
    • NOFN project is implemented by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT)
    • This aims gigabit fibre to all the panchayats in the country
    • Based on NOFN experiences, newer, updated and upgraded version –BharatNet was conceived as a nation-wide broadband network
  • Virtual Network Operators for service delivery
  • Mandatory communication infrastructure in new urban settlements and buildings
  • National Information Infrastructure 
    • For integration of all core ICT infrastructure built under National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)
    • Would integrate the network and cloud infrastructure in the country to provide high speed connectivity and cloud platform to various government departments up to the panchayat level.
    • These infrastructure components include networks such as State Wide Area Network (SWAN), National Knowledge Network (NKN), National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN), Government User Network (GUN) and the MeghRaj Cloud. 
    • It will have provision for horizontal connectivity to government offices/ service outlets at state, district, block and Panchayat levels respectively
  • Universal access to mobile connectivity
  • National Rural Internet Mission – Coverage  through Common Services Centers (CSCs) and Post offices as multi-service centres

B. Infrastructure for digital identity and financial inclusion

  • Aadhaar, a 12-digit individual identification number is issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) on behalf of the Government of India
  • Aadhaar can be used by any application which needs to establish the identity of a resident and/or provide secure access for the resident to services/benefits/entitlements offered by the application.
  • Mobile identity solutions
    • mobile number linked with Aadhaar
    • mobile with digital signatures
    • mobile with voice biometrics (either standalone, or linked to mobile number).
  • 80 per cent of internet users in India access internet through mobile devices
  • Mobile Seva
    • Is a revolutionary whole-of-government mobile governance initiative
    • to deliver public services to citizens and businesses through mobile devices
    • utilises various mobile-based channels such as SMS, USSD, mobile apps, and voice/ IVRS
  • PayGov
    • is a centralized platform for facilitating all government departments and services to collect online payments from citizens for public services
    • offers various payment options such as Net Banking (65+ banks), debit cards, credit cards, cash cards/ prepaid cards/ wallets, and NEFT/ RTGS, etc
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana
    • has been launched as a national mission for financial inclusion of all the households in the country
    • The plan envisages universal access to banking facilities with at least one basic banking account per household, financial literacy, access to credit, insurance and pension facility.
    • It also envisages channeling all government benefits to the beneficiaries’ bank accounts.

C. Common services centres

  • Internet connectivity is available through the CSC.
  • The neighbourhood CSC is a convenient and friendly place to know and avail G2C services, banking services (including loans) and also to learn about suitable agricultural practices.
  • Several B2C services are available too in the CSC.
  • Family members can learn computer skills at the CSC and also undergo vocational trainings for better family income.
  • CSC 2.0 is proposed to strengthen the CSC network by ensuring standardization of service availability and ensuring capacity building of all stakeholders involved

D. Digital lockers

  • sharable private spaces on a public cloud to every citizen
  • documents issued by Government departments and agencies could be stored for easy online access
  • e digital locker would have a collection of repositories (digital repository) for issuing authorities (issuer) to upload their documents (electronic document) in a standard format
  • MeghRaj Cloud initiative
    • To accelerate the delivery of cloud-based services
    • To optimize Information Communication & Technology (ICT) spending of the Government
    • This would comprise several central and state clouds built on existing or new (augmented) infrastructure, following a set of common protocols, guidelines and standards issued by Government of India.
    • MeghRaj offers – Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) and Storage as a Service (STaaS) services.

E. Make cyberspace safe and secure

  • India appointed its first chief information security officer (CISO) in 2015
  • National cybersecurity architecture
    • The architecture will provide a framework for designated agencies to monitor, certify and fortify India’s networks in accordance with the law
    • Aimed at preventing sabotage and espionage of core IT systems and networks
  • National Critical Information Protection Centre (NCIIPC)
    • Was formally created  in 2014
    • five broad areas that cover the ‘critical sectors’ are:
      • Power & Energy
      • Banking, Financial Institutions & Insurance
      • Information and Communication Technology
      • Transportation
      • E-governance and Strategic Public Enterprises
  • National Cyber Security Co-ordination Centre
    • To scan the country’s web traffic to detect cyber security threats
    • The first phase of National Cyber Coordination Centre has been made operational in August 2017
    • Is a multi-stakeholder body
    • Implemented by Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) at Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology
  • The Cyber Swachhta Kendra–Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre for analysis of malware and botnets that affect networks and systems

5.1.2  Governance & Services

The ultimate objective is to make all government services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets, and ensure efficiency, transparency, and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic needs of the common man

A. Integrated services

  • providing single-window access to services to the citizens and businesses 
  • e-governance standards to provide services across the departments
  • use of open APIs to promote software interoperability for all e-governance applications and systems
  • common platforms like MeghRaj Cloud Platform, Mobile Seva, PayGov and eSangam have been established by DeitY for the Departments and States for the purposes of interoperable and integrated services
  • Ex:- e-Biz and e-Trade projects under the NeGP

B. Real time services

  • e-Governance applications to give the related information, services and grievance-handling mechanism online on a real time basis and across all types of access devices such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles, etc.
  • Ex:- e Mobile Seva project of DeitY is a highly successful project that provides a common national platform to all Government departments and agencies at the central, state and local levels for providing mobile based services and mobile apps.

C. Use of cloud technologies

  • GI Cloud is named as ‘MeghRaj’
  • to accelerate delivery of e-services and optimizing ICT spending of the Government
  • e cloud platform can host online repositories for all possible entitlements in areas like Public Distribution System, BPL entitlements, social sector benefits, LPG and other subsidies, etc.
  • This will provide delivery for these entitlements on an anywhere, anytime basis. 
  • Ex:-In 2014 provident fund portability through the Universal Account Number (UAN) was achieved

D. Government services for businesses

  • For improving Ease of Doing Business in the country.
  • The e-Biz project provides integrated services across various central and state departments/ agencies through a single window mechanism to all businesses and investors for setting up a commercial enterprise.
  • The MCA21 aims at providing electronic services for statutory requirements and other business related services.
  • The e-Trade facilitates foreign trade in India by promoting effective and efficient delivery of services by various regulatory/ facilitating agencies involved in foreign trade, to enable traders to avail online services from these agencies.

E. Digital Financial Transactions

  • electronic payments and fund transfers for targeted and direct delivery to the intended beneficiaries without the involvement of middlemen
  • online mechanisms for payment of fees for certain public services
  • PayGov India
    • is a centralized payment gateway for all Government Departments and agencies in the country.
    • It is operated and maintained by NSDL Database Management Ltd (NDML)
  • Mobile Services Delivery Gateway (MSDG) under Mobile Seva
    • The citizens can choose from a host of e-payment options such as Net banking, credit card, debit card, prepaid/ cash card/ wallet, Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) and mobile wallet

F. Use of GIS technology

  • National Geospatial Information System (NGIS) is being implemented to integrate geo-spatial data available with a number of organizations such as Survey of India, National Informatics Centre (NIC), NRSA and Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) to develop a GIS platform for e-Governance applications.
  • GIS platform will be leveraged as a service for the benefit of various mission mode projects and other e-governance initiatives.
  • NGIS can also be leveraged for monitoring the physical progress of projects, disaster management and specialized needs of public safety agencies.

5.1.3 Digital Empowerment

Digital connectivity is a great leveller in both social and economic development. So gapping the digital divide is very important. The digital India programme focus on,

A. Digital literacy

  • Ensure that all panchayats in the country have high-speed connectivity through National Optical Fiber Network (NOFN) project
  • Digitization and connectivity of the local institutions, such as panchayat office, schools, health centres, libraries, etc
  • National Digital Literacy Mission
    • initiated with the vision to empower at least one person per household with crucial digital literacy skills by 2020
    • The industry has also come forward to support the e-literacy goal through this mission

B. Digital resources, and collaborative digital platforms

Places emphasis on  availability of digital resources/services in Indian languages along with digitalisation of government documents or certificates

  • Technology Development for Indian Languages (TDIL) programme
    • for developing information processing tools and techniques to facilitate human-machine interaction without language barriers
    • creating and accessing multilingual knowledge resources
    • develop innovative user products and services
  • Localization Projects Management Framework (LPMF) to help localize applications developed under the Mission Mode Projects and other government applications
  • e-Bhasha
    • to help develop and disseminate digital content in local languages to non-English speaking population
    • The disabled friendly content and systems are being developed as per accessibility standards
  • e National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy (NDSAP)
    • requires government organizations to proactively release their datasets in an open format.
    • Implementation is being done by NIC, an agency of DeitY, through the Open Government Platform for India (http://data.gov.in)
    • data.gov.in provides a single point access to all the open-format datasets published by different government departments
  • India Development Gateway (InDG)
    • is a nation-wide initiative, supported by DEITY and executed by C-DAC, Hyderabad.
    • InDG facilitates rural empowerment through provision of credible information products and services in local languages
    • respond to the real and strategic needs of the unreached especially women and poor
  • Digitize India Platform (DIP)
    • to provide digitization services from scanned document images or physical documents for any organization.
    • It features an automated platform for processing and extracting relevant data from document images in a format that may used for the analysis.
    • to lead organizations towards a paperless office
    • to make data available on demand to the citizens
  • Portability of all electronic documents to be ensured. As an example, educational institutions should ensure that all their degrees and certificates are digitized and kept in online repositories with appropriate access protocols
  • Accessibility – Providing access to digital resources for citizens with special needs, such as those with visual or hearing impairments , learning or cognitive disabilities, physical disabilities
  • A nationwide digital platform named as “myGov” (www.mygov.in) to facilitate collaborative and participative governance.
  • DeitY also maintains a social media page highlighting e-governance services being provided through NeGP at https://www.facebook.com/NationaleGovernancePlan 

5.2 The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)

NeGP was approved in 2006 to take a holistic view of e-governance initiatives across the country, integrating them into a collective vision.  As result,

  • massive countrywide infrastructure reaching down to the remotest of villages is being developed
  • large-scale digitization of records is taking place

NeGP comprises 31 mission mode projects (MMPs), which are further classified as state, central or integrated projects. Each state government can also define five MMPs specific to its individual needs.

  • Most of these projects have been made operational and have started providing services.
  • However e-governance as a whole has not been able to make the desired impact
  • The availability of electronic government services to citizens was still low
  • Lack of needs analysis, business process re-engineering, interoperability across MMPs, and coping with new technology trends (such as mobile interfaces, cloud computing) were some of the limitations 

This has led to adoption of a new plan e-Kranti  or NeGP 2.0

5.3 e-Kranti / NeGP 2.0

e-Kranti was approved in 2015 with the vision of “Transforming e-Governance for Transforming Governance”. e-Kranti is an important pillar of the Digital India programme. The approach and methodology of e-Kranti are fully aligned with the Digital India programme.

There are 44 Mission Mode Projects under e-Kranti programme. 

  • A mission mode project (MMP) is an individual project within the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) that focuses on one aspect of electronic governance, such as banking, land records or commercial taxes etc.
  • The projects have clearly defined objectives, scopes, and implementation timelines and milestones, as well as measurable outcomes and service levels.
  • These mission mode projects are grouped into Central, State and Integrated projects.

The status of MMPs are as follows,

 For example, Banking MMP covers the following services – Electronic Central Registry ,One India One Account-for Public Sector Banks and Electronic Mass Payment System

The key principles of e-Kranti are as follows

  • Transformation and not Translation
  • Integrated Services and not Individual Services. 
  • Government Process Reengineering (GPR) to be mandatory in every MMP. 
  • ICT Infrastructure on Demand. 
  • Cloud by Default
  • Mobile First. 
  • Fast Tracking Approvals. 
  • Mandating Standards and Protocols. 
  • Language Localization. 
  • National GIS (Geo-Spatial Information System). 
  • Security and Electronic Data Preservation

The thrust areas are,

Technology for Education – e-Education

  • All Schools will be connected with broadband.
  • Free wifi will be provided in all secondary and higher secondary schools
  • A programme on digital literacyat the national level
  • Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) for e-Education

Technology for Health – e-Healthcare

  • online medical consultation
  • online medical records
  • online medicine supply
  • pan-India exchange for patient information

Technology for Farmers

  • farmers to get real time price information
  • online ordering of inputs
  • online cash, loan, and relief payment with mobile banking

Technology for Security

Mobile based emergency services and disaster related services to citizens on real time basis so as to take precautionary measures well in time and minimize loss of lives and properties.

Technology for Justice

Interoperable Criminal Justice System shall be strengthened by leveraging several related applications,

  • e-Courts
  • e-Police
  • e-Jails and
  • e-Prosecution

Technology for Financial Inclusion

Financial inclusion shall be strengthened using

  • mobile banking
  • Micro-ATM program
  • CSCs/ Post Offices

Technology for Cyber Security

National Cyber Security Co-ordination Centre  to ensure safe and secure cyber-space within the country

5.4 E-Education

The e-education programme refers to broadband and wi-fi connectivity to Schools, digital literacy program at the national level and leveraging Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs).

The National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT)

Has been envisaged as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to leverage the potential of ICT, in teaching and learning process for the benefit of all the learners in Higher Education Institutions in any time any where mode

  • providing connectivity to all colleges and universities
  • providing low cost and affordable access-cum-computing devices to students and teachers and
  • providing high quality e-content free of cost to all learners in the country
  • all the services available through the content delivery portal Sakshat
  • It seeks to bridge the digital divide
  • This was expected to be a major intervention in enhancing the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in Higher Education 

Efforts in digitalisation of Knowledge

  • National Knowledge Network (NKN) project 
    • aimed at establishing a strong and robust Indian network capable of providing secure and reliable connectivity for research and innovation
    • NKN with its multi-gigabit capability aims to connect all universities, research institutions, libraries, laboratories, healthcare and agricultural institutions across the country
  • ePathshala
    • Developed by NCERT
    • for showcasing and disseminating all educational e-resources including textbooks, audio, video, periodicals and a variety of other print and non-print materials through website and mobile app.
    • The platform addresses the dual challenge of reaching out to a diverse clientele and bridging the digital divide (geographical, socio-cultural and linguistic)
  • e-Granthalaya
    • is an Integrated Library Management Software developed by National Informatics Centre,(NIC)
    • The application is useful for automation of in-house activities of libraries
    • provide various online member services
    • The software is UNICODE Compliant, thus, supports data entry in local languages
  • National digital library
    • ebooks and other e-contents on various subjects and topics 
    • The digital library is set up by IIT, Kharagpur

Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs)

Scheme for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) is to provide best quality e-learning resources to students across country. National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) aims to provide high quality personalized and interactive knowledge modules over the internet/intranet for all learners in Higher Educational Institutions in anytime anywhere mode. Through this scheme the Ministry is providing connectivity to all colleges and Universities and providing high quality e-content free of cost.

The MOOCs available now are

  • National Programme for Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)
    • developing curriculum based video courses and web based e-courses
    • to be prepared by seven IITs and IISc, Bangalore as participating institutions
    • available to everyone in India and abroad through the website
  • Swayam(Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)
    • The objective of this effort is to take the best teaching learning resources to all, including the most disadvantaged.
    • seeks to bridge the digital divide for students who have hitherto remained untouched by the digital revolution and have not been able to join the mainstream of the knowledge economy
    • facilitates hosting of all the courses, taught in classrooms from 9th class till post-graduation
    • to be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time
    • the marks/grades secured in this exam could be transferred to the academic record of the students.
    • All the videos created for SWAYAM will also be also be available on a platform called e-Acharya
    • The agencies involved in Swayam are

Technology in School and Colleges

The technology can be useful in improving the quality of teaching and learning, better administration of schools and colleges or in governance of the education system

Quality of Learning

  • Creation of a Common Platforms Resource Hub to provide access for ICT Enabled Teaching Learning material (TLM) for teachers
  • activity based digital learning resources and content related services to enhance teaching in the classrooms
  • Services to support tracking the progress of classrooms; assessment of the student learning levels and tracking

Administration of Schools

  • Student services -with respect to enrollment, admission, attendance, CCE-based performance / assessment, and health metrics
  • Teacher Services -with respect to attendance, progress of the curriculum and lesson plans in the classroom, conduct of assessments
  • School Services -with respect to profile, underlying infrastructure, scheme implementation details


  • Decision support systems for the administrators and educationists based on real time and better quality data
  • better monitoring, effective scheme implementation and design of the right interventions for improving the quality and standards of school education
  • Teacher Rationalization Services
  • Training Management Services
  • School Board Examination and Certificate Services
  • School Regulation and Affiliation Services
  • Admissions Management Services
  • Examination services

Some of the schemes in school and higher education are,

ICT @ Schools Scheme

MHRD has designed the scheme to provide opportunities to secondary stage students to develop ICT skills and also for ICT aided learning process.

National Academic Depository (NAD)

Is an initiative of MHRD to maintain a national-level database of all academic qualifications from secondary school certificate to university and professional certificates

Shaala Darpan

  • e-Governance platform for all Kendriya Vidyalayas in the country.
  • It aims to improve quality of learning, efficiency of school administration, governance of schools & service delivery to key stakeholders namely, students, parents, teachers, community and schools.

The digital atlas project

  • Technology is being used to identify geographical pockets which fared poorly in terms of education among girls, particularly of those belonging to marginalised sections of society so that corrective measures could be taken.
  • The digital atlas project developed in partnership with UNICEF was launched on March 8 on the occasion of the World Women’s Day.
  • to map the entire country on a GIS [Geographic Information System]


  • Central Board for Secondary Education [CBSE] has developed this innovative online self-assessment tool
  • could be used by schools to look at their performance at an aggregate level as also at the level of each student and compare them with regards to all CBSE schools at various levels for a period of seven years

Know Your College Portal

  • Developed by the All India Council for Technical Education to enable prospective students to make informed choices about which colleges to pursue admission in.
  • The searchable database of all accredited colleges in the country provides detailed profiles for each of them.

Campus Connect

  • all the Central Universities in the country are to be connected through WIFI network
  • secured WIFI hotspots providing access to the educational and information resources to the students on 24×7 basis.
  • This project will be implemented by ERNET 

Shaala Sidhdhi

  • The National Programme on School Standards and Evaluation (NPSSE), known as Shaala Sidhdhi is a comprehensive instrument for school evaluation
  • Developed by the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA)
  • A web portal for the framework has been launched in 2015 which will enable all schools to engage in self-evaluation in the 7 key domains under the Framework.
  • The results of the evaluations will be available on a public platform along with the school report card.


  1. Vikash Kumar Choudhary says:

    Well that was hell of a knowledge…Thank you for such a brief as well as detailed analysis…Great work…

  2. Durga yadav says:

    Great work sir its really useful….

  3. Shashwat nand says:

    need to study more for ies?

  4. Manish says:

    Itna bhasad h kya ies ke non tech me ….. Mujhse toh na ho payega Bhaiyya ……

  5. gautam says:

    Sale gang marao nahin ho paega to


    good content.Thank you

  7. shamna says:

    very informative

  8. Parwin says:

    Thanks it’s so helpful for me ..

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