February 8,2019

February 7,2019
February 7, 2019
Quiz February 04, 2019
February 9, 2019

Current Affairs for Engineering Service Exam

 Topics list:

  1. National and International Issues on
    1. Economic Development
    2. Social Development
    3. Industrial Development
  2. Energy and Environment
    1. Energy
    2. Environment
  3. Information and Communication Technology
    1. Technology
    2. Application
  1. General Knowledge

Topic 1:Industrial development

Rail tunnel for Vizhinjam port

The second longest railway tunnel of the country is coming up near near the Balaramapuram station on the Kanyakumari-Thiruvananthapuram railway line.

Highlights:

  • The proposed railway line from Balaramapuram to Vizhinjam will be a single line and will be sufficient for the movement of 9 to 10 rakes daily through the corridor for the next 20 years.
  • It will connect the upcoming Vizhinjam International Multipurpose Deepwater Seaport to the railway network.
  • Pir Panjal tunnel connecting Banihal and Hillar shahabad is the largest rail tunnel in India.

Benefits:

  • Improve rail and port connectivity
  • Increases trade and commerce
  • Improve in employment opportunities
  • Reduces the distance between railways and port

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 2 : Environment

Nuclear Waste Disposal

All radioactive waste facilities are designed with numerous layers of protection to make sure that people remain protected for as long as it takes for radioactivity to reduce to background levels.

Types of nuclear waste:

  1. Low-level waste is made up of lightly-contaminated items like tools and work clothing from power plant operation and makes up the bulk of radioactive wastes. It  represent 90% of the total volume of radioactive wastes, but contain only 1% of the radioactivity.
  2. Intermediate-level wastes might include used filters, steel components from within the reactor and some effluents from reprocessing.
  3. High-level wastes from nuclear generation,  but they contain 95% of the radioactivity arising from nuclear power.
Types of nuclear waste Volume Radioactive content
High-level waste 3% 95%
Intermediate-level  waste 7% 4%
Low-level waste 90% 1%

Waste disposal

  • Intermediate- and low-level wastes are disposed of closer to the surface, in many established repositories.  Low-level waste disposal sites are purpose built, but are not much different from normal municipal waste sites.
  • Low-level and intermediate wastes are buried close to the surface.
  • High-level wastes require shielding and cooling, low-level wastes can be handled easily without shielding.
  • High-level wastes can remain highly radioactive for thousands of years. They need to be disposed of deep underground in engineered facilities built in stable geological formations.
  • The regular monitoring is done as per the requirements which are in line with the guidelines of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
  • The monitoring of various environmental matrices such as air, water, soil etc., in and around the waste disposal facilities is carried out by independent Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESL) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) which are stationed at all the nuclear sites.  

Read more at: PIB

Atal Bhujal Yojana

The Government has proposed Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY) aimed at sustainable ground water management with community participation in select over-exploited and ground water stressed areas.

Key Facts:

  • ABHY is designed as a Central Sector Scheme
  • It is proposed to be implemented with World Bank assistance
  • The funding pattern is 50:50 between Government of India and World Bank.
  • It  envisages active participation of the communities in various activities such as formation of ‘Water User Associations’, monitoring and disseminating ground water data, water budgeting, preparation & implementation of Gram-panchayat-wise water security plans and IEC activities related to sustainable groundwater management.
  • Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) is regulating groundwater development in India.

Read more at: PIB

Topic 3 : ICT

Development of Space Technology

Some of the new developments made in the last three years are as listed below :

  • Development of highly polished optical mirrors – for a solar coronographic mission – Aditya-L1
  • Development of large, light-weight collimators with non-cylindrical aperture – for x-ray polarimetric applications – XpoSAT mission
  • Development of indigenous silicon sensors and coatings for optical and IR spectroscopic applications – for payloads on Chandrayaan-2 mission

RESPOND programme

  • Indian Space research Organisation through the programme called RESPOND (Sponsored Research) is encouraging academia to participate in the R & D activities.
  • The  programme provides support to research projects in wide range of topics in space technology, space science and applications to universities/ institutions.

Aditya-L1 mission:

  • ISRO’s Aditya – L1 mission is similar to NASA’s Parker Solar Probe, that is to study the sun.
  • The Aditya – L1 will be inserted in a halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1), which is 1.5 million km from the Earth.
  • Lagrangian point is a point where the attraction by the Sun and the Earth becomes equal. The point doesn’t experience gravitational force.
  • Planning to launch in 2021
  • Study of chromospheric and coronal heating, Physics of the partially ionized plasma and initiation of the CMEs and flares
  • Observe the in-situ particle and plasma environment providing data for the study of particle dynamics from the Sun.

XPoSat

  • To measure polarization (degree and direction) of X-ray photons from ~50 potential celestial sources of interest in the energy band of 5-30 keV.
  • Mission Life – 5 years, Platform – Modified IMS-2 Bus
  • • Payload – Polarimeter Instrument in X-rays (POLIX) from Raman Research Institute
  • Planning to launch in 2021

Chandrayaan-2

  • Expand technologies from Chandrayaan-1 & demonstrate newer technologies for future planetary missions.
  • Deploy a Lunar Lander-Rover capable of soft landing on a specified lunar site and deploy a Rover to carry out in-situ analysis of chemicals.
  • Carry payloads in the Orbiter craft to enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-1 with improved resolution.
  • Chandrayaan-2 Mission is planned during early 2019.

Read more at: PIB

India’s first “career portal”

Rajasthan has launched India’s first “career portal”.

The portal:

  • It is aimed at addressing the needs of secondary and higher secondary students for information on scholarships and career choices.
  • The portal is expected to help the students take “informed decisions” about their academic and professional pursuits.
  • It was launched with the support of United Nations Children’s Fund.
  • The career portal will serve the needs in the educational stream, enabling the students to choose their career path matching with their aspirations, interest, inclination and aptitude.

Read more at: The Hindu

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