With the emergence of technologies, there is a need for materials with special properties. Because, conventional materials are unable to meet these special properties like high strength and low density materials for the applications such as aircraft parts.
Composites are the new class of materials. These are multiphase materials which can be artificially made to get desired properties.
Now, this versatile material system has become a part of everyday life.
Millions of material combinations are possible because of the combination but again to simplify complexity on our brain, they are classified based on two criteria
|Type of Matrix material||Size and shape of dispersed phase|
|Metal matrix composites||Particle reinforced composites|
|Polymer matrix composites||Fiber reinforced composites|
|Ceramic matrix composites||Structural composites|
Composite class based on size and shape of dispersed phase further divided as below
Why to study different composite types?
These dispersed or the reinforced phase inside matrix material is any size like particle, fiber as below.
They are again two kinds of composites based upon reinforcement or strengthening mechanism
How is this different from precipitation[FAQ1] hardening?
|Metals||Aluminium alloy castings containing dispersed SiC particles||Resistance to wear and high cycle fatigue resistance||Automotive parts like pistons and brakes.|
|Polymers||Carbon black[FAQ2] added to vulcanized rubber||Enhances toughness and abrasion resistance of the rubber||Automobile tyres|
tungsten carbide (WC) or titanium carbide (TiC) embedded cobalt or nickel used to make cutting tools
|Increases toughness of the materials||Cutting tools for hardened steels.|
Below are some of the orientation examples
Applications: Designed to increase corrosion resistance while retaining low cost, high strength or light weight.
Applications: Roofs, floors, walls of buildings, and in aircraft for wings, fuselage and tailplane skins.
Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) consist of a polymer resin as the matrix, with fibers as the reinforcement medium
These are further divided based on the type of fiber used as reinforcement as below
Ans: It is a heat treatment process that produces uniformly dispersed particles within a metal’s grain structure that hinder dislocation motion, thereby strengthening the metal.
The formation of these precipitates is done by using a solution treatment at high temperatures prior to a rapid cooling process
Ans: Carbon black consists of very small and essentially spherical particles of carbon, produced by the combustion of natural gas or oil in an atmosphere that has only a limited air supply.
Ans: Cermets are composites in which ceramic materials and metals join together, typically to give something with the high temperature performance or wear resistance of a ceramic and the toughness, flexibility, or electrical conductivity of a metal