April 4,2018

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April 4, 2018
April 5,2018
April 5, 2018

Current Affairs for Engineering Services Exam (ESE)

Video Lectures for Engineering Services Exam (ESE)


Topics list:

  1. National and International Issues on
    1. Economic Development
    2. Social Development
    3. Industrial Development
  2. Energy and Environment
    1. Energy
    2. Environment
  3. Information and Communication Technology
    1. Technology
    2. Application

Topic 1:Social development

Minimum wages for nurses

The Kerala High Court on Tuesday allowed the State government to publish the notification on the minimum wages for nurses working in private hospitals in the State.

Highlights

  • The court had earlier restrained the government from issuing the final notification stipulating Rs. 20,000 as minimum wage a month for private hospital nurses
  • The court granted the government the permission to publish the final order while dismissing the petition challenging the fixing of minimum wages for nurses

Minimum Wages

  • A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers. Equivalently, it is the price floor below which workers may not sell their labor.
  • Code on Wages Bill 2017 provides for national minimum wage for different geographical areas so as to ensure that no State Government fixes the minimum wage below the national minimum wage, notified for that area by the Central Government
  • The Bill proposes that the minimum wages so fixed by the Central government be applicable to all employments covering both organised and unorganized sector.

Read more at: The Hindu

Minors can’t opt out of Aadhaar once they are 18

Minors, whose Aadhaar card has already been generated, cannot opt out of the Aadhaar scheme after becoming majors, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) told the Supreme Court.

Highlights

  • After attaining the age of 18, could opt out, the top law officer told the Bench that it was not permissible under the Aadhaar Act, 2016.
  • However, residents have the option of permanently locking their biometrics and only temporarily unlocking it when needed for biometric authentication as per Regulation 11 of the Aadhaar (Authentication) Regulations, 2016

Read more at:The Hindu

NIRF India Rankings 2018

The third edition of the National Institutional Ranking Framework(NIRF) Rankings, released by the Ministry of Human Resource Development on Tuesday, included overall rankings across disciplines and as well as category-wise ranking for engineering, pharmacy, medical, management, architecture, law, university and colleges.

Highlights

  • The Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru, retained its position as India’s top-ranked university for the third year in a row.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) was ranked second, followed by Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in the third place.
  • IIT-Madras was first among the engineering colleges, IIM-Ahmedabad the best management school. AIIMS-Delhi topped among medical institutions.

Read more at: The Hindu

Dilution of SC/ST Atrocities Act

The Supreme Court said its March 20 judgment, banning immediate arrest of a person accused of insulting or injuring a Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe member, is meant to protect innocents from arbitrary arrest and not an affront to Dalit rights.

Highlights

  • According to the Supreme court’s directive on 20 March, coercive action against public servants, accused of hostility towards the lower caste, can only be taken with written permission from their appointing authority.
  • For private citizens accused of a similar crime, arrest can be made only after the Senior Superintendent of Police concerned allows it.
  • The court said there was no complete bar against granting anticipatory bail if there is no prima facie case or if, upon investigation, the case registered under the PoA is found to be ‘mala fide’ or motivated in bad faith.

Centre stand

  • In its review petition filed before the Supreme Court, the Centre said the court had no business to dilute the Act by laying down such guidelines and making it easier for accused persons to escape arrest
  • The low rate of conviction owed to delay in lodging the FIR, hostile witnesses and complainants, absence of proper scrutiny of cases by the prosecution before filing charge sheet and lack of proper presentation and appreciation of evidence by the court.
  • Now, a preliminary enquiry would only reduce the rate of registration of cases, conviction, increase pendency and per se serve as a deterrent in filing FIRs

Read more at:The Hindu

Topic 1:Industrial development

Myoelectric hand with thumb rotation launched

Offering an alternative to branded prosthetic hand with thumb rotation, a private company in India has launched an indigenously-developed myoelectric prosthetic hand.

Highlights

  • Myoelectric controls utilise the electrical signal generated by muscles in the remaining portion of the patient’s limb.
  • The signal is picked up by electrodes that sit on the surface of the skin.
  • It enables users to perform functions such as turning keys and gripping objects.
  • The digits or fingers articulate (curl) like real fingers and a rotatable thumb to allow a range of different grip patterns closely resembling the movement of human hands in routine activities.
  • It is Cost-friendly than a branded myoelectric hand

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 2 : Environment

Formation of State Wetland Authority: Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu State government  set up a ‘Wetland Authority’ for the protection and preservation of wet lands across the State.

Highlights

  • The government had  formed a Conservation Authority of Pallikaranai Marshland Complex in Chennai.
  • The works such as raising mangrove plantations, digging creeks, desilting animal water holes and forming bunds had been carried out to improve the habitats of water birds.
  • The steps were underway to bring Panchanadikulam Wet land and the unsurveyed Salt Swamp located between Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary and Muthupet Mangroves within the ambit of the Ramsar Convention of 1971.

National committee to replace Central wetland Authority 

  • In the wetland rules, 2010 there was a Central Wetlands Regulatory Authority(CWRA), as a nodal agency to coordinate with multiple stakeholders in the country for conservation and sustainable management of wetlands
  • Under the new rules of 2017, the CWRA will be replaced by a national committee
  • The powers have been given to the State governments so that protection and conservation work can be done at the local level.
  • Central government has mainly retained powers regarding monitoring

Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017

  • The new rules stipulate setting up of a State Wetlands Authority in each State and union territories that will be headed by the State’s environment minister and include a range of government officials.
  • They will also include one expert each in the fields of wetland ecology, hydrology, fisheries, landscape planning and socioeconomics to be nominated by the state government.
  • The State authorities will also need to prepare a list of all wetlands of the State or union territory within three months, a list of wetlands to be notified within six months, a comprehensive digital inventory of all wetlands within one year which will be updated every ten years.
  • The rules prohibit activities like conversion of wetland for non-wetland uses

Wetlands

  • Wetlands can be defined as lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water.
  • They support rich biodiversity and provide wide range of ecosystem services such as water storage, water purification, flood mitigation, erosion control, aquifer recharge and others.

Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.

Read more at: The Hindu

Project to tackle climate change

Kerala’s Thiruvananthapuram district administration’s project C5 (Change for Change Climate Change) that aims at a sustainable lifestyle to mitigate the effects of climate change is a critical step towards protecting the future of the next generation,

Highlights

  • The Voluntary activities formed the foundation of the activities envisaged through C5 in association with various stakeholders
  • The C5 initiative aims at roping in commercial establishments and bodies with the support of social activists and voluntary organisations.
  • Corporate social responsibility funds will be used to take up environment-friendly and financially sustainable activities.

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 2 : Energy

Delhi becomes first city to roll-out Euro VI fuel

New Delhi has become the first city in India to deploy Bharat Stage 6 Fuel for both petrol and diesel. two years ahead of the rest of the county.

Highlights

  • The idea behind this implementation two years ahead of the previously scheduled date of April 1, 2020, is to help battle Delhi’s long-standing terminal pollution problem.
  • Upgrading to stricter fuel standards helps tackle air pollution.

Bharat Stage (BS) VI

  • The proposed Bharat Stage (BS) VI regulation for on-road vehicles in India includes contains both emission standards for new vehicles as well as specifications for reference and commercial gasoline and diesel fuels
  • Sulfur content is limited to a maximum of 10 ppm in the proposed BS VI regulation, which matches global best practices.
  • While proposed BS VI fuel specifications largely follow European regulations, proposed limits for several commercial gasoline and diesel fuel parameters in India differ from EU values
  • By 2023-2025 time frame, India should try to match, or even improve upon, Euro 6/VI fuel specifications.

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 3 : ICT

Digital Initiative for Ease of Export

Union Commerce and Industry and Civil Aviation Minister launched digital initiatives by Export Inspection Council (EIC) for ease of export at New Delhi.

Highlights

  • EIC is the official export certification body of Government of India and has launched this flagship project of Digital India Initiative to keep pace with changing dynamics of the world.
  • To provide fast, efficient and transparent services for ease of doing business in all sectors the complete export food chain has been integrated in this digital platform.
  • Primary production, chain catch, aquaculture pond, dairy farms and apiaries are all linked. Processing units, testing laboratories, official controls and exports have complete traceability.
  • One lab one assessment portal provides unified approach to all stakeholders like accreditation bodies, regulators and laboratories by bringing them together on a common platform.
  • Simplified procedures for granting joint certification and joint decisions helps in reducing cost, time and multiplicity of assessment.
  • The Export Alert Monitoring portal monitors non compliances raised by importing countries.
  • The portal will enable monitoring of alerts and action taken by multiple organizations involved in initial certification in the food safety & bio security and analysing the trend, understanding the trade barriers to reduce the alerts and enhance the export trade.

Read more at: PIB

AI makes chemicals

  • An Artificial Intelligence (AI) entity called “AlphaGo” had defeated humans in a complex Chinese board game called ‘GO’
  • Scientists have now reported that this software, which uses multiple deep-learning networks, can be used to plan tough and complex chemical syntheses in organic chemistry called retrosynthesis.
  • Computer-aided retrosynthesis was done using the Monte Carlo tree search heuristic and AI which were trained on all reactions ever published in organic chemistry

Read more at: The Hindu

Topic 5:General Knowledge

New antimicrobials

Two new synthetic compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA), have been created. MRSA, a bacteria that causes many infections in humans, is multi-drug resistant and current antibiotics are not able to kill it. They could soon become a new class of antimicrobials for the treatment of difficult-to-cure infections.

MRSA

  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a gram-positive bacterium that is genetically different from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
  • MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. 

Read more at: The Hindu

 

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